This is the 3th presentation of a series of documents, presented during the conference on the application of the Anoxia method for euthanizing animals.
The conference is held in Canberra (Australia) on February 21, 2014. The conference is organized for representatives of animal welfare organizations, Australian animal health authorities and the industry and gives an overview of more scientific based information on the Anoxia method.
This is the second presentation of a series of documents, presented during the conference on the application of the Anoxia method for euthanizing animals.
The conference is held in Canberra (Australia) on February 21, 2014. The conference is organized for representatives of animal welfare organizations, Australian animal health authorities and the industry gives a general overview of the Anoxia technique.
This is the 1st presentation of a series of documents, presented during the conference on the application of the Anoxia method for euthanizing animals. The conference is held in Canberra (Australia) on February 21, 2014. The conference is organized for representatives of animal welfare organizations, Australian animal health authorities and the industry and gives an overview of some important practical issues related to Emergency Response, based on my experiences during the outbreak of H7N7 in Holland.
In January 2012, the OIE gave in Japan an update on the latest developments in killing animals for disease control purposes. The Anoxia method was one of the presented techniques. Today, one year later, the Anoxia technique is commercially available worldwide. Inhumane killing of animals is not longer necessary and the risks of getting infected has been reduced to a minimum.
Death caused by hyperthermia. This questionable method has been developed as a last resort option in case of a large-scale outbreak of High Pathogen Avian Influenza in the UK. Even in EU Regulation EU 1099/2009 there is room for countries to use this kind of methods, when compliance is likely to affect human health or significantly slow down the process of eradication of a disease. (EU 1099/2009; article 18, under 3).
Hyperthermia means that the cause of death is overheating the shed of the birds. The normal core body (CB) temperature of a bird must remain within a narrow range around a mean value of 41.4°C if its welfare is to be safeguarded.
If the core body temperature rises above 45°C most poultry will die quickly. To ensure VSD is effective the temperature in the house must rise to 40°C or greater and remain at that level. Maintaining a relative humidity of at least 75% will help speed the onset of death through hyperthermia.
This DEFRA document provides procedures and instructions on using Ventilation Shutdown (VSD) as an emergency method of killing of poultry for disease control purposes.
On December 16, 2004, Dr. Mohan Raj held a three-hour seminar on the “Welfare, Economic and Practical Implications of Gas Stunning Prior to Poultry Slaughter” at the U.S. Department of Agriculture in Washington that stirred up lots of discussions throughout the US Poultry industry at that timme, DC. Dr. Raj is Senior Research Fellow in the Farm Animal Division of the School of Clinical Veterinary Science at the University of Bristol, Langford, UK (England). One of his main conclusions was that “Use of anoxia [absence of oxygen] is far more humane than gas mixtures containing carbon dioxide.”. After almost 8 years, the Anoxia equipment is commercially available, also in the USA. Form more info, sent your request to info@N2GF.com.
This document was presented at the Nordic Poultry conference in Reykjavik in November 2009, before the Anoxia method was commercially available.
Dr. Berg compares in this document different methods of emergency killing of poultry, applicable within the Nordic poultry industry (Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland and Iceland).
This presentation summarizes methods available for killing poultry during outbreaks of epizootic or zoonotic diseases. Available methods for killing poultry are listed and discussed with relation to practical aspects, biosecurity, animal welfare, occupational hazards and other pros and cons of each method.
The stunning methods mentioned are blow to the head, electrical stunning and captive bold stunning, all mainly applicable for small or possibly medium-sized farms. The killing methods discussed are bleeding, neck dislocation, maceration, injection of barbiturates, carbon dioxide (in-house, in containers, in flow-containers), nitrogen and argon gas, of which some are suitable also for large poultry flocks.
The most animal welfare friendly euthanasia technique for killing poultry is now commercially available within the EU. According to Regulation EU 1099/2009 each poultry farm within the EU need to be equipped with a slaughter technique (listed in this new regulation). Manual techniques like neck pulling are banned from being used. This means that each poultry farm in Europe needs to be equipped with euthanasia equipment that this technique is easy to use.
The method we developed is based on the principle of Anoxia: total absence of oxygen, using only water, soap, and nitrogen. The animals are stunned within 30 seconds. 25 seconds later, the animals die without any unnecessary stress or pain.
The Anoxia method is developed by Anoxia Europe BV (Hoge Eng 52a, 3881 TN Putten, Holland. For more info, please contact dr. Michiel van Mil, +31 341-701687, Mobile +31 652 266944, email firstname.lastname@example.org. www.anoxia-europe.com.
I would like to share my vision the possibilities to prevent the return of H7N9. All measures taken in the past to stop major outbreaks have totally failed in every sense of the word. It is time for radical change in dealing with outbreaks. This is my step-by-step approach to battle outbreaks.