H7N9 – Don’t buy weapons in wartime

Once the source of the H7N9 infection is found, how should the Chinese authorities you organize the response? Regarding that it is more than likely that animal-to-human contact could cause a human pandemic, all existing response methods are doomed to fail.

One of the remaining options is the novel Anoxia method, based on the absence of oxygen under atmospheric conditions. When the Chinese authorities able to apply this technique throughout all provinces, using well-equipped and trained firefighters, they could be able to stop the pandemic before it starts. The Anoxia method is therefore the weapon of choice.

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Comparing firefighting foam and 100% Co2 for depopulating poultry

Current control strategies for avian influenza (AI) and other highly contagious poultry diseases include surveillance, quarantine, depopulation, disposal, and decontamination. Selection of the best method of emergency mass depopulation needs to maximize human health and safety while minimizing disease spread and animal welfare concerns. An overall goal of this project was to find a way to evaluate the welfare of the poultry subjected to a depopulation treatment. This study consisted of two experiments to evaluate the efficacy of mass depopulation methods. Experiment 1 was conducted as a proof of concept for the use of the alpha/delta (A/D) ratio in evaluating the time to loss of consciousness in poultry. Experiment 2 was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of two mass depopulation methods on turkeys. The methods that were tested were carbon dioxide (CO2) gassing and firefighting foam.

Not that, according to Directive EU 1099/2009 firefighting foam is not allowed to be used for culling poultry within the European Union.

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Nitrogen production

In the attached presentation, you will find a detailed description of a new animal welfare application based on the use of mobile nitrogen generation: The N2GF Technology. Nitrogen gas foam has some astonishing features:

• Simplicity – creating nitrogen gas foam follows a simple protocol – the systems are easy to assemble – easy to operate – easy to clean & disinfect;
• Cost effective – only affordable disposal materials are used for the culling bag – no maintenance costs – low investments. Compared to existing Co2 systems, the consumption of gas is reduced by up to 80%;
• Safe culling – Nitrogen is non-toxic – safe storage/transport – safe disposal;
• Animal welfare – once the animals are exposed to 99,5% nitrogen in the foam, they are stunned and slaughtered within 1,5 minutes by anoxia;
• Stability – when the gas foam is used in a container, the foam at the entrance of the container works as concealment.

This technology forms the basis for a new slaughter concept based on the use of high expansion foam, filled with 99,5% nitrogen.

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Anoxia as principle: how does it work and is it the the next generation universal slaughter technique?


Compressed nitrogen can be used as the source of the next generation universal slaughter technique. This idea is warmly welcomed by animal scientists for its ability to kill animals without noticing.

Read more about this exiting new technology:

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Religious slaughter: Should animals be stunned before slaughter?

Holland, BBC November 30, 2011, by Raffi Berg. “The slaughter of conscious animals was widely abandoned in the 20th Century and is now practiced mainly in the Jewish and Muslim communities. Consumers increasingly expect animals to be stunned before death – but would banning other slaughter methods be an unacceptable violation of religious rights?”

Read the entire article: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-14779271

This article demonstrates a very interesting discussion on a highly political issue. Religious and non-religious groups are trying to find the answer to the question whether or not animals should be stunned before slaughter. Scientific proof that animals need to be stunned is openly questioned and rejected by religious leaders, who argue that conventional stunning is torture.

Under Jewish and Islamic law, animals for slaughter must be healthy and uninjured at the time of death, which rules out driving a bolt into the brain – though some Muslim authorities accept forms of stunning that can be guaranteed not to kill the animal.

Under shechita, the animal’s neck is cut with a surgically sharp knife, severing its major arteries, causing a massive drop in blood pressure followed by death from loss of blood. Supporters say unconsciousness comes instantaneously – the cut itself stunning the animal. A similar procedure is used in Islamic slaughter, or dhabiha.

One scientist who has observed closely the work of trained shochets is Dr Temple Grandin of Colorado University, a renowned expert on the humane treatment and slaughter of livestock. Her verdict is that conventional slaughter with preliminary stunning, and religious slaughter without stunning, is both acceptable when conducted properly.

In this discussion between welfare specialists and religious groups, only the aspect of slaughter for human consumption is discussed. The issue of how animals need to be slaughtered during large-scale outbreak situations is completely ignored. The lack of practical solutions inevitable leads to panic reactions. In worst-case, animals are bulldozed alive, under a thick layer of earth.

It would be interesting to find out if the N2GF method could be applied for large-scale outbreaks, guaranteeing that animals are stunned and slaughtered without noticing that they are stunned and slaughtered…

For more information: www.n2gf.com

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Research shows nitrogen more practical than carbon dioxide for euthanizing pigs


December 12, 2012, Manitoba Agriculture News.

Research conducted by the University of Manitoba has shown nitrogen to be a more practical alternative for mass euthanasia of swine than carbon dioxide.

The University of Manitoba in partnership with the Canadian Swine Health Board, Manitoba Pork Council and Manitoba Agriculture Food and Rural Initiatives is developing a mobile mass euthanasia system for swine and poultry.

Phase one of the project, which started about a year ago, was to design and test a pilot system and phase two is to design a full sized system.

Dr. Qiang Zhang, a professor in Biosystems Engineering with the University of Manitoba, says the pilot system has been tested, it worked well and the next step, once funding has been secured, will be to develop the full size system.

The current method of euthanasia is CO2.

If you actually use CO2 basically you have to truck in CO2 in bottles from elsewhere to take it to the site, say on a farm.

Our system actually uses nitrogen, basically uses pure nitrogen to reduce the oxygen to two percent or lower level so that should actually euthanize any animal.

The reason why we’re using nitrogen is because, first nitrogen is abundant in the air.

We actually will be looking at an on-site nitrogen generation system to produce our own nitrogen right on the spot.

The advantage of that is if you have a large outbreak of disease and if you use the current method of CO2 then there’s simply not enough CO2 supply actually in the province.

Nitrogen, you’re facing the same problem,

Where do you get the large quantity of nitrogen.

Our system actually will avoid that problem by generating our own nitrogen on site.

Dr. Zhang says, when using carbon dioxide for euthanasia was to compared to using nitrogen, nitrogen scored much better than carbon dioxide from an animal welfare perspective but in terms of public perception the two were pretty much equal.

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Using Nitrogen for Euthanasia Improves Welfare

January 8, 2013, The Poultry site, News: CANADA – Research conducted by the University of Manitoba has shown, from an animal welfare perspective, nitrogen is a better alternative for mass euthanasia than carbon dioxide, writes Bruce Cochrane.

Dr Qiang Zhang, a professor in Biosystems Engineering with the University of Manitoba, describes in a radio interview with Farmscape online that the current emergency response systems use carbon dioxide where as the new system uses nitrogen:

‘We actually compared CO2 with our new system. We were looking at the two aspects, one is the animal welfare, the other one is the public perception. Animal welfare is strictly looking from the animal’s point of view.

We actually use video tape to observe the behavior of the animals and with a panel of experts we actually score the welfare behavior.

Also we did the same thing with the public perception. In quick summary, the nitrogen actually scored much better than the CO2 in terms of animal welfare but from the public perception point of view the two were pretty much equal.’

Listen to the entire radio interview:

Read the article of January 8, 2013 in the Poultry site:

http://www.thepoultrysite.com/poultrynews/27718/using-nitrogen-for-euthanasia-improves-welfare

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Anoxia caused by Nitrogen Foam: an alternative for stunning animals with high concentrations of Co2?


In the International Journal of Pharmacology, a group of Mexican scientists discuss the controversies related to stunning pigs and poultry with of high concentrations of Co2.

One of the recommendations was: ‘From the perspective of animal welfare, 90% argon by volume, or the lowest possible Co2 concentration to stun a swine is recommended. Argon is suggested as welfare-friendly alternative to carbon dioxide for stunning/killing pigs and poultry’.

During this research, 90% Argon in volume in combination with Co2 was reviewed: a combination of gasses resulting to the same as using Nitrogen foam, filled with 98% nitrogen: Anoxia, the total absence of oxygen. Is it fair to suggest that Anoxic Nitrogen Foam would be a reasonable alternative for using high concentrations of Co2?

Read the entire report:

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Humane Euthanising Using Nitrogen Foam


January 3, 2013: The Pig Site: THE NETHERLANDS – The most humane method to euthanize animals that are in severe pain or suffer severely seems to be the use of nitrogen gas foam. By this method the animals will be unconscious within a short time through an abundance of nitrogen. The animals die in a short time, without regaining consciousness. This novel method will be extensively tested at the Swine Research Centre of Wageningen University, the Netherlands.

Read more: http://www.thepigsite.com/swinenews/31940/humane-euthanising-using-nitrogen-foam

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Humane Euthanising Using Nitrogen Foam


January 3, 2013, The Poultry site

THE NETHERLANDS – The most humane method to euthanize animals that are in severe pain or suffer severely seems to be the use of nitrogen gas foam. By this method the animals will be unconscious within a short time through an abundance of nitrogen. The animals die in a short time, without regaining consciousness. This novel method will be extensively tested at the Swine Research Centre of Wageningen University, the Netherlands.

http://www.thepoultrysite.com/poultrynews/27680/humane-euthanising-using-nitrogen-foam

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