AVT session 6: The science behind the Anoxia technique

This sixth presentation of a series of 6 AVT presentations on the science behind the Anoxia technique.

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Canadian code of practice for the care and handling of poultry

There is an increasing awareness that currently accepted moral standards of our society call for the prevention of any avoidable suffering. Domestication and artificial selection have made farm animals dependent on humans.

Consequently, according to the existing principles of ethics, humans must accept this dependence as a commitment for humane conduct toward domestic animals in all stages of their life.

Welfare codes like this Canadian Code of Practice are intended to encourage livestock producers, stock-keepers, handlers, transporters, and processors to adopt the highest standards of animal husbandry and handling.

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Depopulation options as welfare indicator

In this paper conventional cages are compared to furnished cages, non-cage systems, and outdoor systems. It appears that no single housing system is ideal from a hen welfare perspective. Although environmental complexity increases behavioral opportunities, it also introduces difficulties in terms of disease and pest control.

One specific circumstance has not been taken into consideration in this paper: how to depopulate the hens in case of an outbreak situation. Emergency control is not an economic parameter to choose a specific production system, but comparing a production system with or without cages, it is clear that it is much easier to depopulate chickens in a system without cages. Without a proper technique to cull the animals in a animal welfare friendly way and to transport the carcasses out of the house mechanically, the chickens are killed and transported manually.

This is not only increasing the risks for humans to get infected, it also influences the risks that animals suffer unnecessary during depopulation. Handling animals during outbreak situations is mostly done by inexperienced responders who have little to no knowledge about animal welfare. Veterinary authorities in charge of the response activities have issues like effectiveness and efficiency to consider.

How to depopulate the chickens in an outbreak situation is an important welfare indicator and the producer of these systems need to be kept responsible for the technical solution.

Harm Kiezebrink
Research Fellow Queensland University /
CEO AVT Europe AB

AVT Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB
Address details: c/o INTRED, Södra Hamnen 2,
45142 Uddevalla, Sweden

Phone: +44 7452 272 358
E-mail: harm.kie@gmail.com

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Anoxia presentation Australia

This is the 3th presentation of a series of documents, presented during the conference on the application of the Anoxia method for euthanizing animals.

The conference is held in Canberra (Australia) on February 21, 2014. The conference is organized for representatives of animal welfare organizations, Australian animal health authorities and the industry and gives an overview of more scientific based information on the Anoxia method.

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Creating Nitrogen on location: important new animal welfare application

This is the second presentation of a series of documents, presented during the conference on the application of the Anoxia method for euthanizing animals.

The conference is held in Canberra (Australia) on February 21, 2014. The conference is organized for representatives of animal welfare organizations, Australian animal health authorities and the industry gives a general overview of the Anoxia technique.

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From Ausvet plan to implementation

This is the 1st presentation of a series of documents, presented during the conference on the application of the Anoxia method for euthanizing animals. The conference is held in Canberra (Australia) on February 21, 2014. The conference is organized for representatives of animal welfare organizations, Australian animal health authorities and the industry and gives an overview of some important practical issues related to Emergency Response, based on my experiences during the outbreak of H7N7 in Holland.

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Anoxia equipment commercially available within the EU

The most animal welfare friendly euthanasia technique for killing poultry is now commercially available within the EU. According to Regulation EU 1099/2009 each poultry farm within the EU need to be equipped with a slaughter technique (listed in this new regulation). Manual techniques like neck pulling are banned from being used. This means that each poultry farm in Europe needs to be equipped with euthanasia equipment that this technique is easy to use.

The method we developed is based on the principle of Anoxia: total absence of oxygen, using only water, soap, and nitrogen. The animals are stunned within 30 seconds. 25 seconds later, the animals die without any unnecessary stress or pain.

The Anoxia method is developed by Anoxia Europe BV (Hoge Eng 52a, 3881 TN Putten, Holland. For more info, please contact dr. Michiel van Mil, +31 341-701687, Mobile +31 652 266944, email michiel@anoxia-europe.com. www.anoxia-europe.com.

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Impact of social media on the successful introduction of ideas: The Anoxia Method

I am a bit of an autodidact, but I have never worked in social media before. I had an idea that I would like to share with others who are also working in my field (see my profile on LinkedIn) but who I don’t know personally. I am not working at a university, I am a bit too buzzy for that at the moment, but I wanted to launch a new concept based on the euthanizing animals that are sick or cripple.

My ideas on animal welfare friendly methods of euthanizing sick and crippled animals are around the world and start to have a major impact on how people anticipate and perceive handling animals that deserve our respect. In total a time of 5 month, I created traffic resulting in 6.820 reads of dedicated readers – on subjects I care for – and on subjects I think others with similar interests might be interested in.

About the author
Harm Kiezebrink (1958) is an international consultant on animal disease control and emergency management. He has hands-on experience in various mass culling operations and developed new technologies for optimum performance. He is a regular adviser for national governments and international organizations.

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Nitrogen production

In the attached presentation, you will find a detailed description of a new animal welfare application based on the use of mobile nitrogen generation: The N2GF Technology. Nitrogen gas foam has some astonishing features:

• Simplicity – creating nitrogen gas foam follows a simple protocol – the systems are easy to assemble – easy to operate – easy to clean & disinfect;
• Cost effective – only affordable disposal materials are used for the culling bag – no maintenance costs – low investments. Compared to existing Co2 systems, the consumption of gas is reduced by up to 80%;
• Safe culling – Nitrogen is non-toxic – safe storage/transport – safe disposal;
• Animal welfare – once the animals are exposed to 99,5% nitrogen in the foam, they are stunned and slaughtered within 1,5 minutes by anoxia;
• Stability – when the gas foam is used in a container, the foam at the entrance of the container works as concealment.

This technology forms the basis for a new slaughter concept based on the use of high expansion foam, filled with 99,5% nitrogen.

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The official start of the N2GF research project

 

Introduction

Starting 01/01/2013 there will be more strict rules for killing of (young) animals. Existing methods are not always suitable for young piglets and poultry, based upon an acceptable level of welfare. Also some methods are relatively expensive or can only be used by veterinarians. Therefore it could be interesting to work with nitrogen gas foam. The possible advantages are:

–       Better for welfare, little stress or pain

–       No rising of nitrogen gas, because of the foam

–       Possible low investment and operating costs

–       Little risk for humans

–       Easy to use and safe for the environment

It has already been proven a good system for poultry (Gerritzen et al, 2010, McKeegan et al 2011 – see their reports on this platform).   This project plan describes the actions needed to develop and test a nitrogen gas foam device for young piglets and poultry.   It only describes the rough outline, and for each sub-theme a specific and detailed work plan needs to be written.   The main activities will take place on the facilities of VIC Sterksel, part of Wageningen UR Livestock Research who will develop specific sub-themes.   Other parties are invited to contribute and participate in this project. The project will be performed for/with N2GF. (www.N2GF.com)

Objectives

The project starts at January 1, 2013 and will be finalized by June 30, 2013. After the successful completion of this project, a euthanasia device will be developed for young piglets and poultry that is suitable for use on (poultry/pig) farms. Also an e-learning and certification system as well as a vocational training/certification system is available. There are standard operating procedures and product manuals available and the investment- and operating costs are known.

Results

  • Preconditions for dimensioning a nitrogen gas foam euthanasia device are known, also on behalf of safety
  • Effects on pigs are known (pain, stress)
  • Product manuals and Standard Operating Procedures are available
  • Training curricula and demands on certification are available
  • Training  and certification (e-learning and vocational) systems are available
  • Economics (investment and operating costs) are known

Organisation

The organisation of this project is not fully complete and is open for participation. The current partners are:

Nederland:

  • SHK trading BV (Producer of the N2GF equipment, representative of the patent holder and project initiator)
  • Wageningen UR Livestock Research-  Swine Innovation Centre Sterksel (Project location and facilitator)
  •  ONI Consult (Certification processes)

Sweden:

  • AVT Advanced Video Training Europe AB (development of training curricula, certification materials, online training and visualisation, guidelines, product information and Standard Operating Procedures);  Trollhättan Sweden
  • N2GF (Project leader)

 

Denmark:

For more information about this project, please contact info@n2gf.com

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